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Vitamin E has also been shown to play a role in immune function, DNA repair, and other metabolic processes. Selenium is used by our bodies to produce glutathione peroxidase, a component of the body's natural antioxidant defense system that is manufactured in the liver. It works with vitamin E to protect cell membranes from damage caused by harmful free radicals and helps to detoxify harmful compounds in the liver.

Additionally, some glutathione is released into the bloodstream, where it helps to maintain the integrity of red blood cells while protecting immune system white blood cells as part of the body's defense. Eighteen patients received no supplementation, 14 patients received oral selenium, and 13 patients received oral beta-carotene for a period of one year. Between three and six months, glutathione activity increased significantly in patients treated with selenium, compared with those treated with placebo.

Only a slight increase was found following treatment with beta-carotene. The researchers stated that because glutathione plays an important role in the natural enzymatic defense system in detoxifying hydrogen peroxide in water, selenium supplementation could be of great interest in protecting cells against oxidative stress.

Because of the risk of toxic levels of selenium building up in the system, patients should avoid taking high doses mcg or more at one time, or mcg daily for an extended period of time. Patients must also be aware of the amount of selenium they take in from seafood, whole grains, oats, and nuts. Most of these antioxidants are affordable and readily available to anyone who wants them.

Research indicates promising results on the protective effects of antioxidants to strengthen the immune system to fight toxins in human body.

Pharmacists are in an exceptional position to explain proper dosages to their patients and to clarify the roles of various synthetic and natural antioxidants available on the market. They can also explain the benefits patients receive from scavenging free radicals in their bodies to reduce cell and tissue damage.

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Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys. Saljoughian M. Lycopene: nature's powerful antioxidant.

A Mighty Twisted Protein in Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis

UC Berkeley wellness letter. Co-Enzyme Q May Lipoic acid as a potential therapy for chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress. Curr Med Chem. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med.


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Protection against peroxynitrite-dependent tyrosine nitration and alpha 1-antiproteinase inactivation by oxidized and reduced lipoic acid. FEBS Lett. Phase II study of pomegranate juice for men with rising prostate-specific antigen following surgery or radiation for prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. Pomegranate juice improves carotid artery health and lowers blood pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.

J Agric Food Chem. Rietveld A, Wiseman S. Antioxidant effects of tea: evidence from human clinical trials. J Nutr. Naidu KA. Vitamin C in human health and disease is still a mystery? An overview.


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Nutr J. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. Molecular basis of vitamin E action: tocotrienol modulates lipoxygenase, a key mediator of glutamate-induced neurodegeneration. J Biol Chem. Thomson CD. Assessment of requirements for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr. Hercberg S. The history of beta-carotene and cancer: from observation to interventional studies. What lessons can be drawn for future research on polyphenols? Am J Clin Nutr.

To comment on this article, contact editor uspharmacist. Featured Issue Featured Supplements. Subscribe Jobs. If the pulses were widely spaced enough for the spheres to depolarize, they moved in random directions and bunched into disorganized clusters.

Ancient women had mighty builds

This resulted in more organized clusters that aligned with each other and eventually began rotating. This tunability could allow the particles to be used to test theories of collective dynamics, the authors write. Dance music from around the globe tends to be faster than some other types of songs, such as lullabies. But their songs share universal patterns. Samuel Mehr at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and his colleagues analysed audio recordings of songs from cultures all over the globe.

The researchers found that music exists in all the sampled societies and varies more within groups than between them. In a specific society, songs differ depending on the context in which they are sung, such as lively celebrations or calmer events. But across all cultures, the team could identify four distinct, recurrent song types: dance tunes, healing songs, love ballads and lullabies. Across the world, songs that are used in the same way share characteristics. For example, dance songs are faster and more rhythmic than lullabies, and love songs use on average a larger number of pitches than dance songs do.

The team also showed that Western listeners who had never heard traditional music could listen to a song and successfully guess its type from its musical features. Science To encode genetic information, living things rely on DNA molecules, which are made of a precisely arranged sequence of building blocks called nucleotides.

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Similarly, proteins and their constituent peptides are built from an alphabet of 21 amino acids. Amino-acid sequences carry instructions for how a molecule should be built and what its function is.

click Jennifer Heemstra and her colleagues at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, combined those two programming languages in a single molecule. On the basis of those codes, the molecules can then assemble into desired structures. An almond grove in Mallorca, Spain, blighted by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subspecies multiplex. Genomic analysis suggests that the microbe originated in the United States. Credit: Dr. Across Europe, crops and ornamental plants are being hammered by a destructive bacterial invader called Xylella fastidiosa. Now a genomic analysis shows that one of the most threatening forms of this bacterium probably invaded Europe multiple times, in most instances arriving from California.

Since , X. The subspecies shows a high level of diversity in the southeast, suggesting that it originated there. Understanding the routes the microbe travelled could help European officials to prevent future outbreaks. A farmer fertilizes rice in Yunnan province, China. Emissions of the pollutant nitrous oxide have spiked in part because of fertilizer use in Asia and South America.

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Global emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, seem to be rising much faster than scientists have thought. The gas, which destroys ozone in the stratosphere, is a by-product of the use of nitrogen-based fertilizers, which are commonly applied to farm fields. Rona Thompson at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research in Kjeller and her colleagues combined data from a global network of observations with atmospheric transport models, to calculate the rate of nitrous oxide emissions from to The team found that during that period, the rise in global emissions was almost twice as large as previous estimates, which were based mainly on statistics about fertilizer usage.

Emissions from East Asia and South America account for the bulk of the estimated increase. Nitrous oxide emissions rise disproportionally in response to nitrogen use in agriculture, the authors conclude. Reducing global emissions would require more efficient fertilizer application and, ultimately, changes in human diet, they say.

Nature Clim. Change Credit: Sara Juengst. The Salango archaeological site in western Ecuador includes two small burial mounds built in roughly bc by people of the local Guangala culture. In one mound, Sara Juengst at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and her colleagues found the bones of a 6- to 9-month-old baby whose head was encased in the skull of a child aged between 2 and In the second mound, the team found an month-old toddler wearing another such helmet from a child between 4 and 12 years of age.

The helmets were probably affixed before burial and might have been intended to protect the souls of the children who wore them. A wispy wrapper of vimentin protein green surrounds the nucleus purple of a mouse cell. Credit: Robert D. A cell protects its nucleus by swaddling it in a minuscule wrapping of soft but resilient protein fibres. To investigate how cells safeguard their nuclei, Robert Goldman at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, Paul Janmey at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and their colleagues examined the role of the cellular protein vimentin, which forms fibres that stiffen under stress.

However, that cage was missing in cells that lacked the vimentin gene, and the nuclei of these cells were much more likely to rupture during movement than the nuclei of normal cells. The results show that vimentin has a hand in determining the fate of a cell and its genome. Cell Biol. A mosaic depicts a Mesopotamian ruler presiding over a banquet. The scene adorns the Standard of Ur, a box found in the early city of that name.

Credit: Alamy. Pictures taken by a cold war spy jet and satellites show that the Mesopotamian city of Ur sprawled over a much bigger area than scientists had realized. As a city-state and the seat of an embryonic empire, Ur was an important urban centre from to BC , a status reflected in the sumptuous treasures buried in its Royal Cemetery during the third millennium BC.